The Twenty-Seventh Joint Meeting of the UJNR Aquaculture Panel was held on November 11-12, 1998, at the Ise City Plaza, Ise, Mie, Japan. A Business Meeting was held in the morning of November 11. The theme of the Symposium was Goals and Strategies for Breeding in Fisheries.

Dr. Kunihiko Fukusho, Japanese Secretary General of the UJNR Aquaculture Panel, opened the Business Meeting. Dr. Toshihiko Matsusato, Director of the Research Planning and Coordination Division of National Research Institute of Aquaculture (NRIA), welcomed Dr. James McVey, Chair of the U.S. delegation, the U.S. Panel members, and all other participants, on behalf of Dr. Mamoru Kato, Chair of the Japan delegation and Director General of NRIA, and Dr. Yoshinobu Yasunaga, Vice Chair of the Japan delegation and Counselor of Japan Fisheries Agency, in their absence. Dr. Matsusato also read Dr. Kato's greetings to the participants of the UJNR Panel Meeting, and also his comments for the UJNR Aquaculture Panel as given below:

The Aquaculture Panel of the UJNR is by far the most active of the various UJNR panels which cover numerous scientific and technological areas, due to the very dedicated efforts of the past and present researchers and administrators involved in the UJNR, both on the U.S. and Japan sides. It is expected that culture fisheries will contribute greatly to enhancing food production and improving healthy food quality in the 21st century. There are, however, many problems which need to be addressed in the near future, and it is probable that many of us assembled here at this meeting will make significant contributions to solve them. After the conclusion of the main symposium, we will visit various field sites and facilities to show those who participate the state of aquacultural research and technology in Japan. On-site inspections will take us from Mie, through Toyama, Ishikawa, Fukui, and Kyoto, and offer an opportunity for exchange with researchers and other personnel involved in aquaculture activities in these areas. We also hope that this will be an opportunity for the U.S. participants to experience the culture of Japan and appreciate her history and natural beauty.

The main theme of this 27th UJNR Symposium is "Goals and Strategies for Breeding in Fisheries." Topics relating to basic research and applications to early larval and juvenile rearing, seed production, enhancement fisheries and resource management, and other areas will be discussed and analyzed throughout this meeting. Aquacultural development in the 21st century is dependent on the resolution of many problems relating to these topics, and it is expected that the outcome of this meeting's discussion will help us cooperate better in the right direction.

Finally in Dr. Kato's comments, he expressed his appreciation to Dr. Paul Kilho Park, Secretary General of U.S. side, and Dr. Kunihiko Fukusho, Secretary General of Japan side, as well as many others who had worked hard to organize the program and symposia.

Dr. Edward Kloth, Deputy Science Counselor of the U.S. Embassy, gave the opening key-note on behalf of U.S. Ambassador as follows:

It is a great honor for me to be here with you today in this beautiful area of Japan. I would first of all to extend the best wishes of Ambassador Foley to this distinguished group and to the eminent previous UJNR scientists whom we are also honoring.

Speeding along the old Tokaido on the Shinkansen to Nagoya yesterday, I was reminded that this year marks the 130th anniversary of the Meiji Restoration when Japan's new leadership set the course of the ship of state clearly toward the future, instituting not only changes in government and the economy but in education and science as well.

We Americans were in at the beginning in the sense that Commodore Perry's famous black ships started the process moving. These days, fortunately, Japanese and Americans are working closely together not because we have to but because we want to. Distinguished and brave men and women from our two nations are side by side on research vessels or space shuttles, in laboratories or in cyberspace, separated by thousands of miles but joined by a common interest in solving the global problems that face all of mankind.

In 1964 the United States and Japan established the Cooperative Program in Natural Resources (UJNR) to promote conservation in applied science and technology. The Aquaculture Panel was established in 1970 and is clearly going strong three decades later. Not only you are working together on exiting research, but you are preparing for the next century by your new student exchange program.

Herein lies, I believe the greatest strength of the UJNR's many panels and many successes. Through regular interaction and discussion over the years, the UJNR has nurtured an extensive network of engineers, researchers, and scientists. You have developed mutual esteem for each other's work, and mutual friendship and trust. The breadth of the science is to a layman like myself quite staggering. UJNR is an extremely effective vehicle for research that has served the global community well and has provided an important foundation for far-reaching international cooperation.

Your cooperation has also blazed the way for important new initiatives. The Science and Technology Agreement was certainly a logical outcome of UJNR work and has enabled many others to follow.

The U.S.-Japan Common Agenda of cooperation on Global Issues is also, I believe, a direct descendant of the example the UJNR set of the synergies to be derived from cooperation between our citizens. The March 11, 1998, bilateral plenary marked the fifth anniversary of the U.S.-Japan Common Agenda initiatives begun in 1993. We reached a major milestone for a unique effort in which the governments of the United States and Japan combined resources from the public and the private sectors, including business as well as non-governmental organizations (NGOs), to tackle tough problems ranging from eradication of polio in the Western Pacific to protecting coral reefs around the world.

The Common Agenda initiatives focus on four key areas: promoting health and human development; challenges to global stability; protecting the global environment; and advancing science and technology. Thanks to the Common Agenda initiatives and the hard work of many, many people, real progress has been made thus far, and we are all keenly aware of our responsibility to continue to go forward for the sake of ourselves and future generations.

Your work in aquaculture is an important part of our broad common agenda. It will benefit not only those of us fortunate enough to live in developed nations like the United States and Japan but the many others of our fellow humans living in far more difficult circumstances. The lack of reliable food supplies in countries facing hunger and malnutrition is an important global issue as is the issue of how to ensure a sufficient future global food production capability.

The U.S. and Japan have collaboratively supported the development of technologies aimed at increasing both the quantity and quality of food available worldwide, especially to vulnerable groups. Towards these ends, Japan and U.S. have undertaken a Global Food Supply initiative. Joint activities are already underway in Africa and Asia. We are expanding our collaboration further and are considering new ways of working together to prevent emergency food shortages. Your work is contributing directly to this global effort.

Dr. Matsusato introduced members of the Japanese Panel and Japanese observers: Dr. K. Fukusho, Secretary General, NRIA; Dr. I. Nakayama, Vice Secretary General, NRIA; Dr. T. Suzuki, Secretary for Literature Exchange, NRIA; Dr. M. Hara, Secretary for Scientific Exchange, NRIA; Dr. K. Ikuta, Secretary for Publications, NRIA; Dr. K. Takayanagi, former Secretary for Publications, NRIA; Dr. T. Fujii, NRIA; Mr. Y. Ueda, International Research Division, Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF), Sponsor of this meeting; Dr. K. Inoue, Research Coordinator, Japan Fisheries Agency; Dr. T. Murai, Seikai National Institute of Fisheries Science (SNIFS); Dr. H. Usuki, National Research Institute of Fisheries and Environment of Inland Sea; Ms. Y. Ito, Japan Sea National Institute of Fisheries Science (JSNIFS); Mr. T. Nakasone, National Research Institute of Fisheries Engineering; Mr. N. Ohkubo, Hokkaido National Institute of Fisheries Science; Dr. M. Wilder, Japan International Research Center for Agricultural Science; and Ms. S. Narikawa, Simultaneous Interpreter.

Dr. McVey introduced members of the U.S. Panel: Dr. W. Heard, Auke Bay Laboratory, National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS); Dr. C. Helsey, Hawaii Sea Grant College Program; Dr. C. Mahnken, former Chair and presently Vice Chair of U.S. Panel, NMFS; Dr. K. Park, Secretary General, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); Ms. J. Keller, Secretary for Publications, NOAA; Dr. J. Sullivan, Secretary for Scientific Exchange, California Sea Grant College Program; Dr. H. Bern, University of California, Berkeley; Dr. C. D'Elia, Maryland Sea Grant College Program; Mr. U. Joshi, Secretary for Literature Exchange, Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research International Activities; and other observers from U.S side.

Dr. Fukusho introduced the designated Japanese rapporteur, Dr. K. Ikuta, and Dr. McVey introduced the designated U.S. rapporteur, Ms. J. Keller.

The agenda for the business meeting, symposium program, and list of members are given in Appendix I.


Dr. Suzuki stated that 135 reprints were collected in the field of aquaculture from 11 Japanese research institutes (Appendix II). Actual reprints will be sent to U.S. Chair, Dr. McVey. From the U.S., Mr. Joshi indicated that 46 reprints were collected in the field of breeding in fisheries. These will be given to Japan side later in this Meeting (Appendix III).

Mr. Joshi indicated that NOAA and MAFF had discussed about establishment of the center for informations arising from UJNR Aquaculture Panel meetings starting in the 1997 meeting held in New Hampshire. As a result of cooperation between the U.S. federal agencies, the UJNR information center was created on NOAA Central Library web site in which the exchanged literature and the Proceedings of UJNR Aquaculture Panel Meetings can be accessed on line. The U.S. National Sea Grant Depository in Rhode Island also made electronic copy of literature done by Sea Grant Program. Dr. McVey suggested the importance of using this kind of electronics for information exchange of the UJNR Aquaculture Panel Meetings. The address of these web sites will be informed to Japanese delegates later.

Dr. Matsusato expressed appreciation to the U.S. Panel members for their cooperation not only for literature exchanges officially reported but also for other exchanges. For example, Dr. Mahnken helped him collect literature on oil spill pollution in March 1998. He pointed out the collaboration between U.S. and Japan in this kind of scientific exchange program of information is significant.


Dr. Nakayama indicated that 34 Japanese scientists from 7 research institutes visited the United States 36 times from April 1, 1997,@through August 31, 1998, to attend meetings pertaining to the UJNR aquaculture exchange program (Appendix IV). The information about this exchange program is shown in the UJNR web site home page of NRIA.

Dr. Sullivan reported that 17 collaborative researches were carried out on the topics of genetics and breeding, in flounder, oyster, salmon and abalone in 1997 and 1998 (Appendix V). These researches were conducted in Hokkaido National Institute of Fisheries Science, Tohoku National Institute of Fisheries Science, Oceanic Research Institute of University of Tokyo, and Kyoto University. U.S. scientists participating in these programs came from the laboratories and universities in California, Ohio, Rhode Island and North Carolina. Additionally, a new scientific collaboration was started in September 1997 with assistance of UJNR and Dr. McVey. In this program, Dr. Kengo Ishino who manages Fish Stock Enhancement Section at Hakodate Experimental Fisheries Enhancement Laboratory spent 6 months in the NMFS Montlake Laboratory of NOAA to learn tagging technology.


Dr. Hara reported on the flounder stock enhancement project, the major cooperative study of UJNR Aquaculture Panel that started in 1995. He explained the project of the experimental release of flounder juveniles has been going successfully, and three scientists including Mr. Nick King attending this Meeting have visited Japan to participate in this study since the last meeting in New Hampshire. The main theme of the study in this year was migration, growth and survival of flounder juveniles after release. Precise data will be reported in the symposium held in Maizuru on November 20, 1998, during the field trip. The other cooperative studies on flounder were also conducted by JFA, SNIFS and JSNIFS in relation to the experimental release and feed organisms. Dr. Fukusho expressed his gratitude to Dr. Tanaka and Dr. Seikai, Kyoto University, and Dr. Tominaga, Fukui Prefectural University, for their assistance to this program.

Dr. Park mentioned that the 1999 students exchange program is being planned between Japan and the U.S. Professor M. Tanaka of Kyoto University is recommending two potential Kyoto University students to come to the U.S. in 1999. Further planning will continue.

Mr. King commented that the U.S. is now preparing to accept the two students to North Carolina and New Hampshire next spring. He would like the students to experience a rewarding retreat in the U.S. as he received in this spring in Japan. Dr. Matsusato commented on the difficulties of financial support to this project by National Research Institutes, because there is much difference in the financial system between university and government in Japan. Thus he thanked U.S. side for their effort to support this cooperative project. Dr. Fukusho suggested that this matter of the cooperative study should be discussed further during the field trip.


Dr. Fukusho thanked Secretaries for Publication, Dr. Takayanagi, Japan side, and Ms. Keller, U.S. side, for their efforts to publish the Proceedings of the 26th UJNR meeting held in New Hampshire last year. Ms. Keller reported that the 26th Proceedings are at the publishers, and they will be sent to Dr. Ikuta, new Secretary for Publication, Japan side, after the 1998 Christmas holiday season. She also confirmed the dead line for the manuscript of the Proceedings of this 27th meeting being the end of December 1998. After all of the U.S. manuscripts are collected, they will be sent to Dr. Ikuta for publication. Dr. McVey suggested that the Proceedings of the past meetings should be also published on the web site. He asked panel members for more discussion about this point including how to solve the difficult issues on copyright during this meeting. Dr. Matsusato replied to Dr. McVey's suggestion that he would like to make effort to show the Proceedings of the past UJNR meetings containing a lot of valuable information to the world using web site.


Dr. Fukusho explained the field trip which was planned after the Symposium. This field trip has four features; (1) visiting both Pacific side and Japan Sea side, (2) inviting speakers to the Symposium from institutions which will be visited in this trip, (3) visiting the actual places of cooperative study program of flounder stock enhancement, (4) holding a ceremony to present letters of appreciation to Drs. Shaw, Mahnken, Bern and Park for their contribution to UJNR Aquaculture Panel. The detailed schedule of the trip were provided to each participant (Appendix VI). He also noted that a mini-symposium would be held in NRIA on November 13. In the Mini-Symposium, Dr. McVey, Dr. Standish Allen, Virginia Institute of Marine Science, Dr. Bern, and Dr. Makito Kobayashi, University of Tokyo, would give their talks (Appendix VII).


Dr. Matsusato reported that the organization of the UJNR Japan Panel would be partly modified in accordance with the reorganization of the NRIA that became effective on October 1, 1998. From the next UJNR meeting, Director of the Research Planning and Coordination Division and Chief of Research Cooperation Section of NRIA would serve as Secretary General and Vice Secretary General, respectively. Furthermore, the newly prepared position of Research Coordinator is in charge of acting Secretary General, and supports UJNR activities.

Dr. McVey added comments about a new organization of U.S. Department of Commerce (DOC) where NOAA belongs. A new organization called "DOC Aquaculture Steering Group" will be established soon, and it will decide the new policy for fisheries and aquaculture enhancement that will commence in 2000.


Dr. Mahnken requested Japan side through UJNR Aquaculture Panel to collect samples of Sebastes fishes in western Japan for genetic research of Dr. Anthony Gharrett, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Dr. McVey suggested that this collaboration should be one of the UJNR cooperative studies. Dr. Matsusato replied to Dr. Mahnken that Japan side would like to assist the collection of Sebastes species for Dr. Gharrett. He asked U.S. side to positively request this kind of collaboration through UJNR Aquaculture Panel. Dr. McVey commented that he hopes to promote comprehensive cooperation between NOAA and Oceanic Institute in Hawaii to expand participation in UJNR Aquaculture Panel from the U.S. side.


Dr. Helsey stated that the 28th UJNR meeting will be held in Honolulu, Hawaii, starting on November 4, 1999. The participants will visit islands of Oahu, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii for field trips. The all schedule is planned for 11 to 13 days so far. Another meeting "Marine Ornamentals Aquaculture '99" will be also held in Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, from November 16, 1999. Considering that some participants will attend this meeting after the UJNR field trip, best timing to start the UJNR meeting may be around November 4, 1999. He emphasized that he has to estimate the total number of participants early enough, because the number of seats on the air planes which are used for transportation among the islands are quite limited.


Dr. McVey expressed thanks to everyone involved in organizing this UJNR meeting and field trips. He gave the following closing remarks of this UJNR Business Meeting:

Firstly I would like to recognize that the attendance here today of 39 U.S. scientists and administrators indicates the strong interest we have to work together with our Japanese counterparts. As Dr. Edward Kloth, Deputy Science Counselor of the U.S. Embassy, pointed out the medical and food sciences are working together for enhancing health and healthy food supplies globally. This new holistic impetus enhances all of us as we move into the new millennium. And UJNR cooperation over the last 30 years has laid the necessary foundation to contribute to global food security. A challenge is to provide healthy food resources amply within the given environmental constraints. It was this need for global food safety and security that, I believed, the U.S. Department of Commerce and NOAA to support aquaculture. The collaborative studies we have agreed to have initiated within UJNR, I believe, have yielded effective ways to work together in the future. I particularly appeal for us to keep discussions going on during the field trip as well as at tomorrow's symposium and the environmental hormone mini-symposium of 13 November 1998. We now have wonderful tools in the digital, electronic age for us to communicate better to synthesize the myriads of ever-emerging information and knowledge. It is important for us to explore this type of communications fully. I hope the UJNR Aquaculture Panel will become a model for other UJNR panels to follow in the field of digital information dissemination. Obtaining adequate monetary resources is difficult. It is imperative for us to innovate to utilize the resources of our two countries to develop cooperative research, such as in the field of flounder stock enhancement. At the U.S. national level, the national plans for aquaculture are being developed. International cooperation is clearly identified in the national plans. The U.S. has a joint subcommittee on aquaculture (JSA) that represents approximately 25 Federal agencies under five major Departments, The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, The U.S. Dept. of Commerce, The U.S. Dept. of Interior, The U.S. Corps of Engineers, and The Federal Drug Administration, that have significant programs in aquaculture. The subcommittee meets quarterly, to determine how to combine their available resources to meet the goals set. In my participation on the JSA, I have identified the international cooperative works with Japan and other countries as being very important. So my vision for the future is an ever-expanding cooperation between our countries, and I look forward to work with you to utilize our resources for maximum effect. I thank you for your hospitality and for this opportunity to move forward to realize our common goals.

Dr. Matsusato and Dr. McVey announced that all business had been concluded. The Twenty-Seventh Joint Meeting of the UJNR Aquaculture Panel was then adjourned. November 11, 1998